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Cards And Dominoes

Fascinating bios of leaders from the world of games --

               John Scarne       Ely Culbertson     Al Sobel on Jo-Jotte     Joseph Wergin

              
US Playing Card Company                     R.F. Foster               Stewart Culin

John Scarne Biography

On this page-- John Scarne, Ely Culbertson, Al Sobel on Jo-JotteUS Playing Card Company, Joe Wergin, RF Foster, Stewart Culin

John Scarne played tricks on mobsters, Harry Houdini, and Presidents Roosevelt and Eisenhower... and lived to tell the tale.  He became the best-known card magician ever, and along the way invented games and wrote best-selling books. This is the only site on the web with the rules for Scarne’s invented card games Scarney and Scarney Gin.  Here is John Scarne’s amazing story...

John Scarne was born the son of Italian immigrants to the United States in 1903.   He was born into a background today we would call “under-privileged,” yet he never knew it.   He changed his name from Orlando Carmelo Scarnnechia to John Scarne and made his own way.

As a child, Scare became fascinated with cards.  He would sit for hours behind a coal-bin in the basement, seeing if he could cut an exact number of cards from a deck. Through the gifts of youth and an incredible amount of practice, he learned to do it. 

Scarne’s education was limited by the need for money to support his family.  So at a young age he went out into the world.  He performed card tricks and eventually became a world-class expert.

Scarne met Harry Houdini and became a personal friend. He branched out into magic tricks of various kinds, but his enthusiasm wavered when he saw the danger (and the very real risks) magicians took in the 1920s. He backed off magic tricks after taking a huge splinter into his foot while jumping off a bridge -- tied up and in chains, of course!  Fortunately he got to shore, even though he was bleeding badly.

Scarme in his favorite pose...

John_Scarne

Scarne was approached by gangsters who saw his card abilities as an easy way to riches.  He unknowingly took his final exam by performing for Arnold “The Brain” Rothstein, the mobster who fixed the 1919 World Series.  Once Scarne understood his new “friends” were organized crime, he severed his relationship with them.  He knew he could make money -- potentially very big money -- by cheating at cards.  He also knew the lifestyle of the underworld and the violence it entailed back in the 1920s.  He was an honest man and continued with only legal, legitimate means of making his living.

Scarne was a bit too old to enlist in the Second World War, so he instead took it upon himself to educate the troops about gambling. He showed them how sharks fixed the craps dice and crimped the cards.  Scarne did this altruistically, at his own expense and without pay, as his way to support the troops during the war effort.

As it turned out, this volunteer effort led Scarne into his writing career.  He wrote a pamphlet called “Scarne on Dice” to help servicemen understand how to unmask dice cheats.  This eventually developed into his first published book after the warScarne on Dice is still in print today, and sixty years later it is still considered the authoritative work on dice games. My opinion is that it’s still the best dice book available.

After the war Scarne started his own games company.  This reflected one of his true loves, inventing new games. He mutated checkers into Teeko, a strategy game he felt would compete with checkers and chess. While Teeko was a good game, it never became popular.  Ditto with the many card and dice games Scarne invented.

teeko_board

Here’s the board for Scarne’s original strategy game, Teeko.

Visit our complete page on
Teeko for rules and much more on this great lost game.

This web site lists complete rules for the two card games Scarne invented that he considered his best, Skarney and Skarney Gin.  Skarney is one of the few really good partnership rummies for four players.  Skarney Gin evolves Gin Rummy into an entirely different game by adding just a handful of new rules to the parent game.  Both games offer sweeping strategic scope within the context of simple rules. We highly recommend them and are pleased to present them on our site.  (We believe this is the only website with complete rules for these two games.)

Along with all his other activities, Scarne wrote over a dozen books on cards, dice, gambling, magic tricks, and games. He considered this but a sideline and viewed his invented games as his real contribution.  Ironically, today his games and games company are all long gone, but his books live on.  Scarne on Cards and his Encyclopedia of Card Games and New Complete Guide to Gambling are all classics that sell well even today.   The games inventor instead became the authority on rules and play. Scarne liked to brag that the common phrase “according to Hoyle” was being replaced by “according to Scarne.” The continuing popularity of his game books half a century after he wrote them gives credence to this claim.

Before he passed away in 1985, John Scarne wrote not one, but two autobiographies. These books yield more information on his fascinating life The Amazing World of John Scarne (Crown, 1956), and The Odds Against Me (Simon and Schuster, 1966). You’ll find them now and then at a used bookstore or online.

John Scarne was a complex man.   His autobiographies reek of ego, yet one must admire a man who rose to the top of his self-created profession without benefit of education. One must also consider that Scarne necessarily had to promote himself as a lone entrepreneur.

John Scarne invented his own profession back when most people looked to large companies for stable employment.  He also demonstrated a quiet, strong moral sense in rejecting the easy money of gangsters and in his contribution to the war effort.  

Today Scarne lives on through his books as one of the great authorities on games, gambling, and magic. If you have any interest in these topics, you’ll surely know the name of John Scarne.

scarne_best_wishes
Ely Culbertson Biography

On this page-- John Scarne, Ely Culbertson, Al Sobel on Jo-JotteUS Playing Card Company, Joe Wergin, RF Foster, Stewart Culin

Ely Culbertson almost single-handedly popularized Contract Bridge in the U.S. Yet few know that he was also a Russian revolutionary, itinerant card player, student of mass psychology, and influential peace activist.  This is the only site on the web to contain complete rules for the card game he invented called Jo-Jotte. Here is Culbertson’s surprising story...

Ely Culbertson was born in the Cossack region in the Caucasus mountains, (then a part of the Russian Empire), in 1891.  His father was an American who had gone to that country to find oil and became wealthy as a result. His mother was Cossack, a member of the proud warrior race of southern Russia.

Young Ely was a child of privilege living in what was then a savage land.  But he never felt he fit in.  Perhaps it was his half-American parentage, perhaps it was his unbending ego, but Ely felt apart from "the masses" and always kept himself aloof.

In spite of his wealthy background, Ely become a Social Revolutionary and participated in the Russian revolution of 1905.  With its failure, he became a wanted man, and then a political prisoner.  While awaiting possible execution, he first became proficient at cards, playing the Russian game Vint (Vint is a trick-taking game reminiscent of Whist).

Culbertson picture

Ely Culbertson from a photo used in his popular Bridge books from the 1930’s

After his parents secured his release, Ely traveled the world. He spent many years engaged in self-directed study at some of the best universities of Europe.  His major interests were philosophy, the psychology of mass movements, and cards. It was in France that he learned Belote when that game was first becoming popular, just prior to the First World War.  Culbertson later invented a two-player card game he named Jo-Jotte, which is based closely on Belote. Belote is still today considered the "national card game" of France.

The fall of the Russian Czar in 1917 left Ely suddenly penniless: his father had failed to diversify his wealth and had invested all of his money in Imperial Russian bonds. When Ely came to the United States to live about 1920, his financial position was precarious. He decided to make his living playing cards. He met his wife, Josephine, through cardplay at a New York club in the 1920's.

Ely tried unsuccessfully to make a living at card-playing and teaching (Auction) Bridge after marrying.  When Contract Bridge arrived on the scene in the mid-1920's, Ely immediately saw its potential.  He tried to convince the leading card experts to let him work for them in popularizing Contract.  Milton Work and Wilbur Whitehead were little interested his offer. They were the recognized authorities at Auction and their Auction books brought them significant income. When both rejected his entreaties, Ely realized he would have to popularize Contract Bridge -- and himself -- alone.  At this point, his varied background came to full fruition. His knowledge of revolutions and mass movements translated easily into what we today call "mass marketing;" his study of psychology reinforced the same; and, his knowledge of card play and statistics made him one of the better players in the country.  In short order, Ely backed the greats of bridge into widely-publicized matches against him and his wife. He utilized the new medium of radio to ensure a nationwide audience. And in 1931, he sealed his reputation as the foremost expert on Contract Bridge -- as well as the popularity of the game itself -- when he and Josephine defeated Sidney Lenz and Oswald Jacoby in a highly-publicized match. The match seized public interest in the U.S. and was reported on daily in the newspapers and radio.

beasley_v_culbertson

Ely and wife Josephine Culbertson face “Pops” Beasley and Lady Doris Rhodes for the Schwab Trophy in 1933.  Left to right sitting -- Ely, Lady Rhodes, referee Col. Walsh, Josephine, and “Pops” Beasley.

Photo courtesy of Wikipedia

Ely was a supreme salesman, for Contract Bridge and for himself. The popularity of one buttressed the other. As Contract Bridge became ever more popular, Ely made more and more money from his Bridge books, his endorsements, and similar activities.

A key part of Ely's success was in selling himself and his wife as a human-interest story for the media. He painted himself as an egotistical but misunderstood card genius. He took full advantage of the prejudices of the day, when most people saw women as intellectually inferior.  Josephine was an excellent bridge player and their partnership understanding was unique in its day. Culbertson played up every angle to maximize interest in the "Bridge showdowns" he orchestrated.  In many ways these contests were much like the title boxing matches of the day.   They were challenge matches that lacked any official imprimatur, yet the public accepted them as definitive. All achieved national publicity and interest.

The Culbertsons dominated the new game of Contract Bridge throughout the early and mid- thirties. They didn’t win every match they played, but they won the important ones, and they certainly received the most publicity. Ely’s bridge books became huge bestsellers.

In 1937 Culbertson introduced his new card game Jo-Jotte.  His idea was to popularize Jo-Jotte as the two-player equivalent of Contract Bridge.  Ely modeled Jo-Jotte on the French two-hander Belote, which he had played during the first World War in Paris. Culberton took Belote – which is played in many countries under different names and with slightly different rules  – and grafted a Bridge-like scoring system onto the game. In contrast to his success with Contract Bridge, Jo-Jotte never became popular.  Few experienced card players have even heard of the game today.  (This web site contains the full rules of Jo-Jotte, which you’ll find here.)

By the late 1930's, Culbertson faced a midlife crisis. His interest in card play wavered, and he wrote his autobiography: The Strange Lives of One Man (Winston: Chicago, 1940). He divorced his wife and left his two children to her care.  He tried to find meaning in his old haunts in France, but to little avail.  Eventually, he settled back in the U.S.  He wrote several books on card play and games and married a college-age woman. The May-December marriage didn't last long.

Ely devoted much of his time and fortune to publicizing and promoting his personal plans for world peace in the late 40's and early 50's. At a time when cold war tensions were at their height, he felt uniquely qualified to show how to achieve peace.  After all, he had grown up in Russia, lived in several countries, resided in the U.S., mastered several spoken languages, and studied politics and philosophy at leading European universities.  Ely published widely-read articles on his peace plans in Reader’s Digest magazine, wrote two books on the subject, and testified before the U.S. Congress.  But his plans were not implemented as American foreign policy. In fact, he achieved much by getting a hearing for his ideas. But ultimately he didn't have the same success in influencing U.S. foreign policy as he had in getting the world to play Contract Bridge.

Culbertson died in 1954 from smoking-related lung disease. He was a complex man, one thought far too egotistical by some, while others believed it was all an act, a clever media-manipulation ploy created to achieve renown and financial success.  Ely seems to have failed as a family man, divorcing his wife and negatively impacting his daughter's life.  Yet he truly believed he could give back to the world through his peace plans during the cold war, and he backed up this belief with the totality of his fortune.  And while a few may argue it would have happened without him, there is no question that he single-handedly popularized Contract Bridge.

For more information on Ely Culberston, read his autobiography, which is available at many big-city libraries in the U.S.  Or see Culbertson: The Man Who Made Contract Bridge by John Clay (Weidenfield, 1983) or The Golden Age of Contract Bridge by David Daniels (Stein & Day: NY, 1980).

Jo-Jotte Invention

On this page-- John Scarne, Ely Culbertson, Al Sobel on Jo-JotteUS Playing Card Company, Joe Wergin, RF Foster, Stewart Culin

Here’s Bridge expert Al Sobel on the invention of Jo-Jotte, the two-hander invented by Ely Culbertson to complement four-handed Bridge in the late 1930’s...

“It was my second day with the Bridge World, and Ely [Culberston] blew into my office  with the force of a hurricane. "Al," he hurricaned, "I'm going to write  a book about Joe Jott. I understand you're familiar with the subject and I want you to do the research work. I want a full investigation of all the facts, and have your report ready when I get back from Budapest in three weeks."

"Fine," I countered. "But Ely, about the matter of my salary, you ..."

"Stop worrying about your salary. My boat sails in two hours and I don't have time to discuss it now. Draw whatever money you need from the cashier and we'll straighten it out later."

Incidentally, I might add that that was the last conversation I ever had with Ely regarding my salary! The cashier, the bookkeeper, the accountants, the comptroller, the Treasury Department, and Al Morehead (Ely's right bower at the time) tried to straighten the thing out but Ely washed his hands of the whole affair. But to get back to my first assignment. Ely shook hands, bid me farewell, and headed for the door. I halted him with, "By the way, boss, who is Joe Jott?"

He stopped like a blown-out hurricane, looked at my pityingly, and softly informed me, "Joe-jotte isn't a 'who.' It's a new card game. In fact, it's the greatest two-handed game in the history of the world (this statement was made before Dr. Kinsey published his first report).  The book will sell like hotcakes." "Thank you," I meekly replied, "I'll get to work on it at once."

After I discovered that Jo-jotte was nothing but an old Hungarian game called Kalabrias with Culbertsonian trimmings, the assignment was not too difficult. I visited every New York coffee house, the native habitat of "Klob" enthusiasts, and played the game with the experts every night, much to the detriment of my financial standing. But I figured that my losses could be written up as legitimate expenses in connection with research.

When I brought this matter up at a later date Ely looked at me sternly and warned me that he did not tolerate gambling on the part of Bridge World employees. Thus ended the first lesson. But you've got to give him credit - he called the turn when he predicted the book would sell like hotcakes. If only it had sold like books!”

Al_Sobel

Al Sobel, the engineer who turned to Bridge rather than selling apples during the Great Depression . . .

--> This first-person account was written by Al Sobel for the 25th anniversary of Bridge World Magazine (as quoted by Jerome S Machlin in his book "Tournament Bridge - An Uncensored Memoir"). The quote was forwarded to us by John McLeod, internationally-known card expert and webmaster of the The Card Games Site.

USPC

On this page-- John Scarne, Ely Culbertson, Al Sobel on Jo-JotteUS Playing Card Company, Joe Wergin, RF Foster, Stewart Culin

A playing card company with a radio broadcasting tower?  One that tried to kill off Bridge in favor of 500?  One that contributed to the war effort in both World War II and the Vietnam War?  What’s with the United States Playing Card Company? Here’s the real story...

The United States Playing Card company (USPC) is the oldest and largest manufacturer of playing cards in the United States. The USPC evolved from a printing press purchased from the Cincinnati Enquirer newspaper at the end of the Civil War. The owners of the press were looking for new products to manufacture and they decided on playing cards in 1881. USPC still manufactures one of their first designs today -- the “Congress” playing cards.

Bicycles were the big fad of the late 19th century. Races were popular and their winners were nationally-known.  Everyone was learning to ride (or pretending to!).  So it was natural that USPC produced their “Bicycle” design cards starting in 1885. Like the Congress design, Bicycle cards are still a best-selling playing card today.

By the early 20th century, the public’s attention had shifted to the new excitement of flight. This prompted USPC to introduce their “Aviator” cards. Aviators initially had biplanes on their backs. Over the years USPC upgraded the airplane design to single-winged propeller planes, and later to commercial passenger jets. USPC ultimately gave up changing the design to suit new airplane technologies – today Aviators have a traditional pattern back rather than an airplane on them. (Personally, I wish they had kept the airplane backs that I remember from the 1970’s!)

USPC also makes “Bee,” “Maverick,” and “Hoyle” design playing cards. And they own Kem, the makers of high-end plastic playing cards invented in the 1930’s. (Ely Culbertson signed with Kem Cards in a promotional deal that yielded him a life-long income.)

Kem_Ace

Here’s a Kem plastic playing card with the original 1935 copyright. Note the woman’s short-cropped hair worn close to her head and the fur surrounding her shoulders. She unsmilingly looks to her left. Definitely an iconic 1930’s image!

The USPC made unique contributions to several American wars. In World War II, the company produced special cards that could be peeled apart to reveal maps and escape routes. These were sent to US troops in Nazi prisoner-of-war camps. 

During the Vietnam War, USPC produced special decks consisting solely of Aces of Spades. The Viet Cong had been influenced by fortune-tellers who interpreted the Ace of Spades as predicting death and sorrow. Troops used these special cards as a form of psychological warfare, making sure the Viet Cong would find them at appropriate times.

The USPC also made the famous Iraq War deck, featuring pictures of Saddam Hussein and the Iraqi leadership. This was popularized during the second American-Iraq war in 2003.

Until 2009, the USPC resided in Cincinnati, Ohio, in the building pictured below. The tall tower you see was used by the USPC to broadcast radio programs. The company promoted Bridge and other card games through these broadcasts, capitalizing on the radio boom of the 1920’s.  Eventually radio settled into its modern form of broadcast networks, and USPC sold their radio station to Crosley Radio Corporation (Crosley went on to become a famous Cincinnati-based manufacturer of radios in the ‘20s and ‘30s; and you’ll still see Crosley-labeled radios today). 

Back when the USPC broadcast as station WSAI on the AM band, federal regulators had not yet caught up with radio, and the station was so powerful it could be heard as far away as New Zealand!

uspc_tower

The USPC building featured a prominent radio broadcasting tower.

In 2009 the USPC relocated to Hebron, a Cincinnati suburb on the Kentucky side of the Ohio river.

Photo courtesy of USPC

USPC employees have invented many card games.  For some reason now lost to history, back around 1900 the company wanted to curtail the growing popularity of Bridge. (Who knows why they cared, since whether people play Bridge or any alternative game, they still need to buy playing cards!).  In any case, USPC invented the game “500” as an alternative to Bridge.  500 was probably the most popular game in the United States between about 1900 and World War I. It remains the most popular card game today in Australia, where it is considered their national card game. USPC prints special Australian 500 decks, which contain 63 cards (extended from the standard 52-card deck by the addition of Jokers,  Elevens, Twelves, and two red-suited Thirteens). These special 500 decks enable up to six players to play the game in one group.

Once I visited the USPC and thought it might be fun to pick up an Australian 500 deck at the company store. I looked around and saw a dozen or so decks on the shelf. Just as I spotted the decks, a gentleman with an Australian accent happily scooped up every available pack. Oh well!

USPC employees likely developed several other games including various forms of Poker (Cincinnati and Cincinnati Liz) and Euchre (Cincinnati Euchre). And while the company once tried to kill of Bridge, one of their experts ultimately invented what is -- by far -- the best two-handed version of the game, Bridgette

You can find the rules to all these games in the USPC’s inexpensive card game compendium called the Bicycle Official Rules of Card Games. The book has been in print continuously since the 1890s and costs less than $10. I recommend it as the authoritative rulebook for American card games. Almost any used book store has old copies. It’s fun to see how games like poker and rummy have evolved over the years.

Jardin Corporation bought the USPC in 2004 and made it a subsidiary. They promptly killed many of the fine USPC traditions. The company moved from their historic building to a new site nearby in 2009. They also closed their famous card museum housing historic playing cards and related materials. The collection included the oldest playing cards found in America, with rare cards dating back to the 15th, 16th, and 17th centuries. Once upon a time the USPC and their museum was a fascinating place to visit on any trip to Cincinnati. With its termination, you’re down to Graeter’s Ice Cream and the famous Cincinnati chili (make mine three-way!).  Such is progress in the corporate world.

Read USPC’s own history page here. The company’s main web site for card players is now that of one of their major brands, Bicycle Playing Cards (TM).

Joseph Wergin Biography

On this page-- John Scarne, Ely Culbertson, Al Sobel on Jo-JotteUS Playing Card Company, Joe Wergin, RF Foster, Stewart Culin

Joseph P. Wergin wrote a fascinating tome on a fascinating card game -- Skat.  A complex, intriguing three-hander, Skat might well have become the dominant game Bridge is today, except that its promoters locked women out of their Skat conventions just as the suffragettes achieved success in the early 1900s. Big mistake!  Yet Joe Wergin played on...

Joseph Wergin was born with Halley’s comet in 1910 and hailed from Wisconsin. From a card-playing family, he played in public venues as early as age 13.

Like many Americans from German ethnic background, he was intrigued by the famous German card game Skat.  Skat was developed in 1811 in Thuringia, Germany, and became the most respected and popular game in that country.  Skat features the complexity and elegance of Bridge and attracts from card veterans and experts who seek a challenging vehicle for their skills.

Mr. Wergin became a noted Skat expert and president of the North American Skat League. He published a quarterly Skat newsletter and did much to educate the public about this elegant game. He also wrote the classicWergin on Skat and Sheepshead, a compendium of rules, strategies, trivia and stories about Skat. I highly recommend this engaging and authoritative book.

Skat enjoyed a “golden age” from about 1905 to World War I.  It might have become the dominant card game in our country instead of Contract Bridge.  But the men of the 1910 Skat Congress in Detroit refused to admit women, in spite of the fact that over 900 of them signed a petition of protest. Many of these enthusiastic female card players went on to Bridge instead.  This and the hysteria against all things German during the first World War TKO’d skat as a contender for position as the top card game in America.

Later in life Mr. Wergin concentrated on Cribbage and helped found the American Cribbage Congress.  He served as the organization’s first president in 1978 and helped establish its “grass roots clubs” and educational outreach to schools.

Mr. Wergin also wrote several outstanding books on Cribbage (and Euchre and Poker along the way). He deserves recognition for his educational and promotional efforts with card games and for the outstanding books he left us.  Mr. Wergin passed away in 2005 at the age of 95.

joseph_wergin

Joseph Petrus Wergin,
1910 -2005

Photo courtesy of
American Cribbage Congress

skat_book03

Still the classic work on Skat and Sheepshead -- by Mr. Wergin

Joseph Wergin Biography

On this page-- John Scarne, Ely Culbertson, Al Sobel on Jo-JotteUS Playing Card Company, Joe Wergin, RF Foster, Stewart Culin

Robert Frederick (R.F.) Foster went from gold prospecting to being the dominant writer on games in America. Say what?

Born in Scotland in 1853, R.F. Foster immigrated to the United States at an early age. Upon maturity he worked in a wide variety of jobs, including gold prospecting and lecturing on Pelmanism.  He finally settled on writing about games, especially card games.

He wrote dozens of books on card games in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. His books dominated in the U.S. between 1880 and the 1930s. They covered every imaginable card game: euchre, poker, rummy, bridge, whist and many more. Foster wrote on other games too, such as Mah Jong, dice, and dominoes.  You can still find many of these excellent works at used bookstores, often sold for a pittance as obsolete items.

Since the books are out of copyright, many are posted in their entirety on the internet: you can download them for free.  For example, here is his book on Conquian, an early form of rummy and considered the ancestor of all rummy games. Download his unique book on Pirate Bridge, a three-handed form of Bridge that Foster thought would take over as America’s dominant card game. He wrote the book in 1916 and as it turned out, he was right that Bridge would dominate, but wrong in thinking Pirate would take the honors, as Contract Bridge emerged victorious.

Foster’s great achievement was his Foster’s Hoyle, first published in 1897.  At over 625 pages it covered every card game of its day and makes a fascinating historical study. You can see how games have evolved in the past century. This masterpiece was published continually until at least the 1950s, and just the other day I saw a new reprint available. It’s a fun, comprehensive reference work, even if some the games have changed. Every gamester should have a copy (digital or print).

R. F. Foster died in 1945 at the age of 92.  Though he was one of the grand old men of cards, few attended his funeral ...he had outlived all his contemporaries.

Fosters_Complete_Hoyle_cover
Steward Culin Biography

The cover and signed title page of R.F.Foster’s games reference. Over one hundred years later, it’s still a classic.

Courtesy: Wikipedia

Fosters_Complete_Hoyle_title_page

On this page-- John Scarne, Ely Culbertson, Al Sobel on Jo-JotteUS Playing Card Company, Joe Wergin, RF Foster, Stewart Culin

Stewart Culin (1858-1929) was the first great ethnographer of games. His work was critical to preserving the traditional games of Asian and AmerIndian cultures.

Stewart Culin is a great example of an individual who made critical contributions to academic and scientific study -- yet he had no formal university training.  Culin was born in Philadelphia in 1858 and educated at a boy’s school called Nazareth Hall.  He became director of the Archaeological Museum of the University of Pennsylvania in 1892 at age 34. Then he became curator in Ethnology at the Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences in 1903 and he remained there until he passed away in 1929.

Mr. Culin was one of the first to take games seriously as an expression of the human psyche. He established the study of games as a valid method to understanding cultures, their similarities and differences.  His published works, spanning from the 1880’s to the 1920’s, created a whole new field of academic study.

Mr. Culin had such an impact that many of his works are still available today in book form.  Among them are Games of the North American Indians (vols 1 and 2), Korean Games, and Chinese Games with Dice and Dominoes.  What remarkable achievements by a largely self-educated man.

Stewart_Culin

Mr. Culin in the 1920’s

This webpage at the University of Waterloo (Canada) gives a full description of the Mr. Culin and his accomplishments, as well as links to many of his important works.

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